Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice. An The 6 dimensions model of national culture by Geert … What is Literacy - [email protected]
do countries adopt International Financial …Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Ethical Behaviour in Organizations: A Literature Review2020-3-6 · of cultural factors on accounting practice. Borker  also suggests that cultural factors are determinants of IFRS adoption. There is a dearth of knowledge on the extent to which these cultural variables influence companies’ decisions to adopt IFRS. This study aims to identify the significance of cultural factors on2020-10-13 · understood. Gray (1988) discussed the influence of cultural factors on accounting practice. Borker (2013b) also suggests that cultural factors are determinants of IFRS adoption. There is a dearth of knowledge on the extent to which these cultural variables influence companies’ decisions to adopt IFRS.First empirical evidence of an identity-rela | EurekAlert!Impact of corporate governance mechanism on IFRS …IFRS for SMEs in Europe – Lessons for a Possible Insights from accounting practitioners on China’s 2021-1-30 · whether the implementation of IFRS, a product of a monopolistic accounting standard setter is the right decision towards a global accounting practice, since accounting is related to culture and culture is dynamic across jurisdictions and within countries [2-4]. In 2010, the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) implemented IFRS for all publicly accountable companies .National Culture - Hofstede InsightsHigh-Risk Drinking in College2021-7-15 · amongst African American teenagers. This study uses Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning Theory to deconstruct the factors, which influence and manipulate the overall behavior of the teenagers and initiates them to choose early motherhood over education and career. To ensure better quality of empirical data, the authors collaborated with the pregnantInfluence Of National Culture On IFRS Practice: An International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Definition2021-8-18 · Even in reporting practice, Radebaugh and Gray (1997) through a comparative study concluded that each country reporting practice is influenced by culture despite existence of standard. Jaggi 1975 (cited by Askary p.3) appreciated that the cultural environment was an independent variable that could influence financial disclosure practices in THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON IFRS IN NIGERIA | ProjectCluecultures (the business and financial culture, accounting culture, auditing culture, and regulatory culture) which differ across countries and which could be obstacles to global financial reporting comparability at a high level of quality. Empirical research confirms differences in applying IFRS around the world (e.g., Ernst&Young, 2006; KPMG, vonNational Adoption of International Accounting Standards 2020-4-8 · in the sense that I constrain my focus to studies that involve instructional attempts to promote science learning specifically and empirically study the details of that learning. Section 3 presents a depiction of professional laboratory practice of scientists as a touchstone for thinking about the formulation of school laboratory experiences.2016-12-30 · ADOPTION OF IFRS: IT`S BENEFITS AND IMPACTS ON FIRMS AND COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD The IASB was established in 2001 and since have assumed the responsibility of the standard setting from its predecessor body, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) and began issuing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). IFRS has recently been …2016-8-3 · The National Urban Fellows (NUF) convened a series of national and regional leadership diversity summits during its 40th anniversary year, with the goal of shifting the national leadership paradigm to include leadership models found in diverse communities, to embrace collective approaches and to define a new institutional diversity standard.2021-6-17 · In Germany, the two groups differ in socio-cultural, religious and psychological terms as follows: in the Defender group, 33% have a high level of religiosity, 52% feel more attached to home 2020-6-8 · The sustainable success of infrastructures is becoming a driving force for advancing urbanization globally. However, to achieve infrastructure sustainable success (ISS), how project management practices (PMPs) play their role remains unexplored in current literature. To this end, an empirical study on whether PMPs play significant impacts on the accomplishment of ISS was …Extra-financial Analysis of IFRS Adoption and Application Relationships between national economic culture 2018-7-12 · research provided empirical evidence of the influences of companies [ cultural factors on IFRS adoption in the case of Nigeria. Areas for future research have been identified for international accounting researchers. Keywords: Cultural Influences on IFRS Adoption, FRC, Industry Effects on IFRS …To submit work to the Teachers College Record, please use our online submission system. To access the system, use the link " Submit My Work ," found in the Member Center. The submission system will explain our publishing guidelines, and will allow you to upload your manuscript. Please consult the following Editorials for additional information.2014-9-1 · National economic culture has an indirect influence on accounting at the national level through the mediating variable of institutions. The relationships are evaluated using measures of national economic culture from Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies (House et al., 2004); measures of institutions from the World Bank (Kaufmann et al., 2007); and measures of 2017-10-9 · influence in international relations, global cultures and political economy. 3. Soft power encompasses the work of governments and non-governmental actors and citizens and includes economic, political, and cultural institutions and values. 4. Soft power overlaps but is not coterminous with, public diplomacy, cultural diplomacy, and cultural Earnings Management in Europe Post IFRS: Do Cultural Individualist or Collectivist? How Culture Influences 2010-9-24 · Multiculturalism. First published Fri Sep 24, 2010; substantive revision Wed Sep 9, 2020. The idea of multiculturalism in contemporary political discourse and in political philosophy reflects a debate about how to understand and respond to the challenges associated with cultural diversity based on ethnic, national, and religious differences.Equality and Diversity. Here is a list of PhD and EdD theses completed in the recent past at the Faculty of Education. Name. Topic. Supervisor. Year of Completion. Maria Luisa Alonso. Poetry for young people and cultural imbalances: a postcolonial approach to the …Journal of Accounting and Taxation - factors influencing 2015-12-1 · In studies by the Queens School of Business and by the Gallup Organization, disengaged workers had 37% higher absenteeism, 49% more accidents, and …2016-3-10 · Every empirical study found different results for each societal value except for individualism which is always found significantly related to secrecy. When IFRS is included, both empirical studies (i.e. Doupnik and Ricio, 2006; Tsakumis, 2007) find support for influence of secrecy on accountant’s decision of disclosure levels.FACTORS THAT AFFECT INFORMATION AND …In our study, we will consider the shareholding structure as an independent variable: autochthonous, foreign, mixed. H7: the independent variable, the shareholding structure, influences the value of the disclosure index. Stock Market Age. Being listed on the stock market for a long period of time can influence the quality of financial reporting.The IFRS Foundations logo and the IFRS for SMEs ® logo, the IASB ® logo, the ‘Hexagon Device’, eIFRS ®, IAS ®, IASB ®, IFRIC ®, IFRS ®, IFRS for SMEs ®, IFRS Foundation ®, International Accounting Standards ®, International Financial Reporting Standards ®, NIIF ® and SIC ® are registered trade marks of the IFRS Foundation, further details of which are available from the IFRS 2020-9-10 · It would be a challenge to bring about awareness of IFRS and its impact among the users of financial statements. 2. Training and Education: Lack of training facilities and academic courses on IFRS will also pose challenge in India. There is a need to impart education and training on IFRS …A Cross-Cultural Study on Escalation of Commitment Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice: An Empirical Study in France, Germany and the United Kingdom: 4: Christian Reisloh: Amazon.com.au: BooksTeachers College Record2016-5-24 · Cultures influence on happiness In the past few decades, scores of studies have explored the influence of culture on happiness or Subjective Well Being (SWB). There is …Thank u for coming up with a well researched paper for me. Got it before the set date btw. Julian, Portland, ORThis study investigates IFRS measurement and disclosure practices in the leading EU economies of France, Germany and the UK. The empirical results show that differences in IFRS application are associated with national cultural differences. The findings of the study lead to several implications for IFRS accounting research and practice. Show Less.Request PDF | Does culture affect energy poverty? Evidence from a cross-country analysis | We investigate the impact of cultural dimension on energy poverty—a topic hitherto overlooked in the Determinants of voluntary adoption of IFRS by Indian …Impact of culture on business | Deloitte InsightsTHE CONCEPT OF CULTURE - SAGE Publications Inc6 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practicecial reporting practices. Gray, in relying on Hofstedes2 model of cultural con-structs, is consistent with other work in the international business area. Culture has previously been shown by empirical analysis and case study to affect the or-ganizational structure of …2020-10-13 · Cultural competence has been adopted and required in medical school education to address health disparities, though there is no standard curriculum. This thesis examines theoretical frameworks of cultural competence and its application through an ethnographic study of three practicing physicians and one medical student in the greater Atlanta area.Influence of National Culture on IFRS PracticeAdoption determinants of the International Accounting 2017-1-15 · Sen and Bhattacharya 2001; Tian et al., 2011). However, while these behaviors and con ceptual studies successfully model the role of CSR on the consumers ¶ brand awareness, company reputation, and brand evaluation, there are few empirical evidences provided. Many empirical studies lopsidedl y examine the impact ofConsumer Culture: Theory & Definition - Study.com2021-8-20 · There are contradictory research ﬁ ndings: beneﬁ ts of IFRS are supported by studies such as Convrig et al. (2007), and on the other hand, e.g. Dao (2005) shows some limits; hence, the net effect of IFRS is still not clear. Our results contribute more empirical evidence from EU companies to the current academic discussion. The paperPalomar College - Learning for Success2019-8-16 · The cultural dimensions in Borker (Borker 2013a, b) studies were investigated to identify the relationship between IFRS adoption and the influence of culture on financial reporting. After controlling for other factors in the empirical model, flexibility, uniformity, transparency, secrecy, professionalism and statutory control were identified as Lincoln University DigitalCliffsNotes Study Guides | Book Summaries, Test 2015-11-19 · A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND COMMITMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SELECTED ORGANISATIONS IN CORPORATE SECTOR Dissertation Submitted to the Padmashree Dr D. Y. Patil University,Navi Mumbai, Department of Business Management in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of2016-2-2 · RFAB twin study at the University of Southern California. RFAB is a longitudinal study of 614 families of twins and triplets (n = 1,241) recruited from the greater Los Angeles area school districts.The twins were 9–10 y old at the time of enrollment, in 2001, and have to date been assessed on five occasions over the course of 10 y of development at ages 9–10, 11–13, 14–15, 16–18, and In our study, we will consider the shareholding structure as an independent variable: autochthonous, foreign, mixed. H7: the independent variable, the shareholding structure, influences the value of the disclosure index. Stock Market Age. Being listed on the stock market for a long period of time can influence the quality of financial reporting.2020-8-21 · The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the best breed, high quality and principle based reporting standards removes many allowable accounting alternatives . It is therefore, consequently expected to limit the management’s discretion and lessen practices on earnings management . Quite the opposite, some researchers squabble, that litheness instinctive in IFRS …The Impact of Organizational Culture on Corporate …Impact of corporate governance mechanism on IFRS …2016-1-16 · 2.1 Delimitation of the Study The study focused on the impact of Human Resource Management practices on organizational performance, evidence from Debre Berhan University. The study further limited to four factors which were the independent variables in this study; the role ofThe study of Poland provides a particularly insightful and novel approach for the study because Poland is a post-communist economy and so its national institutional orientation is significantly different to the Anglo-Saxon origins of IFRS. Poland is also a recent entrant to EU and so the interaction of communist legacy with market orientation The Impact of International Financial Reporting …The 6-D model of national culture. Geert Hofstede, assisted by others, came up with six basic issues that society needs to come to term with in order to organize itself. These are called dimensions of culture. Each of them has been expressed on a scale that runs roughly from 0 to 100.IFRS - HomeThe Effects of Organisational Culture on IFRS Adoption 2015-6-2 · Earnings information is vital for decision-making by the users of financial statements. In addition to various firm-level factors, a number of studies have explored the impact of institutional factors at the country-level related to the quality of earnings such as the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), legal investor protection and national culture (e.g., Leuz et 2011-2-13 · empirical evidence for the impact of the organizational performance using organizational culture practices was still limited, but it formed a fruitful basis for more refined organizational culture-performance research. The use of organizational cultural practice to assess organizational culture was supported by Hofstede (1990);2011-4-21 · (2010) research into organizational cultures. It warns against confusion with value differences at the individual level. It concludes with a look ahead in what the study of dimensions of national cultures and the position of countries on them may still bring.the-effects-of-organisational-culture-on-ifrs-adoption 2017-6-4 · This research examines value relevance of accounting data in the pre and post IFRS period in Nigeria. The study focuses on four year period (2008-2011) before IFRS and four year period (2012-2015) after IFRS adoption. We sampled 52 public entities from consumer goods and financial services sector in Nigeria. We measured value relevance using price regression model and returns regression model Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies: SAGE …FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOMES OF …IFRS adoption in developing countries: the case of RomaniaInfluence of national culture on IFRS practice : an empirical Bachelor ThesisAP7C: Literature review on the effect of - IFRS2011-11-17 · Study finds cultural background and translation influence the interpretation of IFRSs; 24 Nov 2015. The Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) and the Korea Accounting Standards Board (KASB) will report on a joint research project on IFRS implementation at the seventh annual meeting of the AOSSG and the next ASAF meeting in December.(PDF) Empirical evidence on jurisdictions that adopt IFRS Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers.Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice 1st edition Multiculturalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)2021-1-23 · culture as well as regulation implementation and enforcement, and that comparing their findings cannot be done in a straightforward manner. 8. Another important caveat is that results of academic studies reflect choices that the authors made (ie sample time period, type of economic entities included in the sample,Influence of national culture on IFRS practice : an empirical study in France, Germany and the United Kingdom Christian Reisloh （Münsteraner Schriften zur internationalen Unternehmensrechnung / herausgegeben von Peter Kajüter, Bd. 4） P. Lang, c20112021-9-3 · This study examines the European stock market reaction to sixteen events associated with the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Europe. European IFRS adoption represented a major milestone towards financial reporting convergence yet spurred controversy reaching the highest levels of government.Project Proposal On IFRS Adoption in Nigeria2013-7-15 · important issues that may affect this relationship: the various measurements of religion, spirituality, and subjective well-being used, and the national cultural contexts in which the relationship is examined. Using the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009, World Values Survey: 1981–2008.Soft owe P r Today - The UK’s international culture and Request PDF | Does culture affect energy poverty? Evidence from a cross-country analysis | We investigate the impact of cultural dimension on energy poverty—a topic hitherto overlooked in the Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice: An The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Brand Master of Science in Management - Areas of Specialization 2020-12-4 · multiple evidence that national culture, often based on Hofstede’s(1984) cultural framework or the GLOBE’s(2004) extension thereof, inﬂuences the behaviour of individual actors, creating variation in IFRS implementation and practice (e.g. Prescott & Vann, 2015).2011-9-5 · IFRS offers considerable scope for companies to choose accounting policies, and therefore it allows national profiles of IFRS practice to emerge. For five major countries (Australia, France, Germany, Spain and the U.K.), these profiles have been reported in the literature ( Kvaal and Nobes, 2010 ).Culture and Institutions1 - Harvard University2021-1-6 · Given these factors in general and the cultural factor in specific, Cieslewicz (2013) argue that accounting would be influenced by national economic culture. In this context, Yamani and Almasarwah (2019) indicate that culture negatively influences IFRS adoption as the culture factor has a significant effect on Saudi Arabias life aspects.2021-8-19 · Studies in Education Co missioned by The Wallace Foundation Learning from Leadership Project Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at The University of Toronto The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducts studies that provide empirical information about challenges confronting schools and practices that lead Influence of IFRS on Earnings Manipulation: Evidence …Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers.CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACCOUNTING …How project management practices lead to infrastructure 2012-12-21 · The study of Poland provides a particularly insightful and novel approach for the study because Poland is a post-communist economy and so its national institutional orientation is significantly different to the Anglo-Saxon origins of IFRS.2021-8-22 · Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice. An Empirical Study in France, Germany and the United Kingdom Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice. An Empirical Study in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Abstract The 2002 enacted IAS Regulation had a major impact on the EU accounting harmonization process. It affected Routledge publishes professional development books and textbooks across psychology, education, STEM, humanities and social sciences. Shop online.2020-12-3 · Consumer culture is a culture focused on consumption of goods and services in society, which greatly influences values, activities and the social …Corporations Act 2001 - Legislation2021-9-4 · COM 486 Communication and Culture in Rome: Study Abroad (12) VLPA/I&S Explores the historical and contemporary connections between Rome culture and communication. Through intensive fieldwork abroad, students acquire skills of observation and understanding that can be applied to navigate intercultural experiences and reflect on their influence Examining the Relation of Religion and Spirituality to Leadership style, organizational culture and performance Drawing on Institutional and Economic Network Theories, this study investigated factors influencing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation success in Ethiopian business organizations identified as Public Interest Companies by the government which were expected to adopt IFRS for the year ending June 30, 2018. The study adopted explanatory method to answer the …Measuring safety culture - Health FoundationDoes culture affect energy poverty? Evidence from a cross 2018-10-31 · The study aims to empirically examine the impact of organizational culture on accounting information system and corporate performance of firms in Ghana.,A survey was conducted using top corporate executives of diverse firms from different industrial sectors. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) and a further post hoc test was done using analysis of variance …The Role of National Culture in International Financial Reply to the Discussion of “IFRS Adoption, Extent of Adoption determinants of the International Accounting 2015-12-15 · organizational culture is important to improve performance and productivity (Eaton & Kilby, 2015). The findings of the study may positively affect business managers by providing strategies to improve their company performance. The public may benefit from the existence of a productive company because the profitable company may provideDownloadable (with restrictions)! type="main"> This paper proposes a framework for understanding managements decision-making on observable accounting policy choices. The framework is used to hypothesize how country, industry, and topic factors influence policy choice under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The hypotheses are tested on the choices made by the largest firms 2016-11-23 · Montesinos& Chow, 2013). Most studies on IFRS do not examine convergence as a decision-making process. They focus on the events after companies start using the standards and very often on whether or not actual reporting practice is in fact compliant with IFRS (Zheghal& Mhedhbi,2006; Shammari, Brown and Tarca, 2008; Peng &Bewley, 2010).Amazon.com: Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice: An Empirical Study in France, Germany and the United Kingdom (Münsteraner Schriften zur Internationalen Unternehmensrechnung): 9783631620526: Reisloh, Christian: BooksAn Accounting Convergence Project as a Transnational …Palgrave2014-5-22 · Culture is one of the most important construct in management research. This exploratory study elaborates the impact of organizational culture on organizational performance. This study is conducted in different Bahawalpur based franchises of telecom companies. The purpose of this study is toRoutledge - Publisher of Professional & Academic Books2014-1-1 · Culture influence on the use of the IAS/IFRS Culture influence on the use of the IAS/IFRS Damak-Ayadi, Salma ; Ben Salem, Rahma 2014-01-01 00:00:00 This study aims to identify the cultural factors that lead countries to converge with or to adopt IAS/IFRS. Basically, we presented a review of literature that associate between culture and the adoption of IAS/IFRS.Economics eJournal ArchiveThe impact of cultural factors on the implementation of global accounting standards (IFRS) in a developing country. Download. Related Papers. Tensions between politico-institutional factors and accounting regulation in a developing economy: insights from institutional theory.The Adoption Of Ifrs And Value Relevance Of Accounting2017-8-21 · Understanding whether various environmental factors, including culture, influence accounting practice is a significant goal because international financial reporting standards (IFRS) were primarily developed for common law, equity-oriented environments. IFRS are now required or allowed in more than 120 countries, and some2014-6-9 · Accounting and Management Information Systems Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 373 399, 2014 IFRS implementation and studies in Turkey Cagnur Kaytmaz Balsari a,1 and Secil Varan a a Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey Abstract: The development of accounting system and practices in a country is a reflection of its economic development as well as l egislative process.Adoption of IFRS - literature review | Finance essays www.ascd.org2020-10-13 · (1984) and Gray (1988) conducted studies and observations of the cultural dimensions and values that have contributed to culture and accounting research. National culture is broad in its influences, but affects the smallest aspects of society-even accounting. Accounting is also influenced by organizational culture, the overall environment in whichTHE IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION AND BANKING REFORM …A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON …2012-10-26 · 4 Evaluate the quality of research studies using established criteria. 5 Participate in the research process. 6 Use research ﬁ ndings to improve nursing practice. Empirical Having a foundation based on data gathered through the senses (e.g., observation or experience) rather than purely through theorizing or logic.International Journal of Management Practice (IJMP 2009-5-13 · control in part due to the cultural value placed on rules and authority. Yet for the most part, accounting researchers are in agreement that the impact of culture on financial reporting is vague and can be misleading. Legal and political factors provide a much more substantial influence on standard2020-10-20 · The e-Journals Archive - March 2007 to August 2020. This is the archive of Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal covering all papers, articles and comments published from the e-journals start till August 2020. From September 2020 on, the journal is …Clinical Practice and ReviewImpact of Globalization on Higher Education: An …(PDF) The Role of National Culture in International Influence of National Culture on IFRS Practice. An 2020-10-13 · ·!bey lind that all of these SYStems influence the corporate disclosure decision. This paper uses a similar approach in the study oflhc adoption oflFRS at the national level. In particular, this study seeks to determine whether national culture, politic.1l systems and economic SYStems influence the national policy regarding the use of IFRS."Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in …Cultural Influence on the Development of Accounting THE IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION AND BANKING REFORM ON EARNING MANAGEMENT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Globalization of capital markets requires a unified global accounting, reporting and disclosure set of standards. As a result of increasing volume of cross border capital flows and the growing number of foreign direct investments via mergers and …2012-3-28 · INTERNATIONAL VARIATIONS IN IFRS ADOPTION AND PRACTICE 3 Contents Abbreviations 4 Executive summary 5 1. Introduction 7 2. International differences before IFRS 9 3. Grouping countries and accounting systems 14 4. How countries react to IFRS 16 5. Different national patterns of IFRS practice 21 6. National patterns on transition to IFRS 25 7.How Does Culture Impact On International Business 2 days ago · IAMCR is saddened by the news of the death of Yassen Zassoursky, President of the Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, who died on 1 August 2021 at the age of 91. He was a leading figure in media and journalism studies and education in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, and served many years as vice-president ofInformation Privacy: Corporate Management and National Keil et al./Culture & Escalation of Commitment A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY ON ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT BEHAVIOR IN SOFTWARE PROJECTS1 By: Mark Keil Department of Computer Information Systems Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30302-4015 U.S.A. [email protected]
Bernard C. Y. Tan Department of Information Systems National University of Singapore Influence Of National Culture On IFRS Practice: An The adoption of IFRS for group accounts of capital market oriented EU companies in 2005 was a milestone in European and international accounting harmonization.Empirical examination of organizational culture on The comparability of IFRS statements of cash flows in Organisation Culture - New Paradigm2016-8-6 · Project Proposal On IFRS Adoption in Nigeria 1. 1 SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Globalization of capital markets is an irreversible process hence the need for harmonization of accounting standards in order to help standardize companies’ financial statements, especially international investors whose interest span across the globe.2013-6-6 · : The globalization of accounting standards as seen through the proliferation of IFRS worldwide is one of the most important developments in corporate governance over the last decade. I offer an analysis of some international political dynamics of countries’ IFRS harmonization decisions. The analysis is based on field studies in three jurisdictions: Canada, China and India. Across these Take online courses on Study.com that are fun and engaging. Pass exams to earn real college credit. Research schools and degrees to further your education.